| Air Sampling
took 2 types of air samples at various locations around the Indian Ocean
for Dr. Bala (Microparticles) and Oliver Wurl (Persistant Organic Pollutants)
from the Tropical Marine Science Institute, National University of Singapore.
For an explanation of what POPs are for non scientists click
POPs air sampling research with Oliver (now Dr. Wurl) has been very productive
and produced 2 scientific papers with the results. Below is a list of
diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) over the open Indian Ocean" , published
in Atmospheric Environment 40, 2006, 5558-5565.
Organic Pollutants in the Equatorial Atmosphere over the Open Indian
Ocean", published in Environmental Science and Technology40,
Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Atmosphere over the Indian
Ocean in the last 30 Years", poster presented at Oceans 06
of banned pollutants in air over Indian Ocean falling", Straits
Times 23 May 2006.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) encompass many different and
varied groups of man-made chemicals, such as pesticides (DDT, Hexachlorocyclohexane
etc.) and industrial chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls). The
semi-volatile, toxic and persistent POPs are gradually redistributed
from tropical regions to colder regions on a global scale. Several
developing countries in Southeast Asia are considered to be a source
of POPs for the global distribution. Scientists are highly interested
in modeling the atmospheric transport of POPs from tropical latitudes
to polar regions, where POPs condense out in the colder air. This
leads to ecotoxicological impacts on the sensitive food webs of
polar regions. Unfortunately, gaps in the POPs database exist for
many regions due to the extreme challenges of sample collection.
The atmosphere and the oceans are intimately linked in a complex web of
physical and chemical cycles that play an important role in regulating
the climate and the properties of the marine atmosphere. The exchange
of a variety of gases and aerosol particles between the oceans and the
atmosphere has become the subject of significant research in the Indian
Ocean in view of the long-range transport of industrial emissions from
developing countries within Asia. However, no comprehensive studies have
been conducted yet to quantify the atmospheric loading of aerosol particles
in this region. Data on both spatial and temporal variations of aerosol
particles are required to gain a better understanding of the climate change,
air-sea exchange, and the impact of air pollution on sensitive ecosystems.
The current study attempts to fill this knowledge gap by providing data
not only on the atmospheric loading of aerosol particles but also on the
chemical substances contained in those particles including heavy metals,
sea-salt, and various ionic species.
this study we will collect atmospheric samples by use of a high
volume air sampler and polyurethane foam (PUF) to capture POPs from
the air. The samples are collected during Jocara Indian Ocean Quest.
Atmospheric sampling is being conducted for the first time using
a sailing boat which is free of contamination problems associated
with motor-powered research vessels. The samples will be analyzed
at the Tropical Marine Science Institute, National University of
Singapore, using high sophisticated analytical techniques.
suspended particulate matter in the marine atmosphere is captured
by a portable air sampler. This sampler draws the ambient air at
a flow rate of 5 liters per minute. The particles in the air are
collected on to a Teflon membrane filter over a period of 48 hours.
The collected particles will be subsequently processed and analysed
for a range of chemical substances using a variety of analytical
International scientists will follow this study with interest to gain
new insights on the distribution of organic and inorganic contaminations
in the Indian Ocean and their global fate and transport.